C4d is prognostic of cardiac allograft vasculopathy
C4d has been regarded as an indirect footprint of an antibody-mediated response against an allograft. While C4d has emerged as a potential marker for antibody-mediated-rejection (AMR) after transplantation over the last decade, its use as a prognostic tool is still under debate.
A recent study has shown a positive association of C4d with cardiac allograft vasculopathy and death in heart transplant recipients. Late C4d positivity (> 1-year post-transplant) demonstrated an even higher risk for developing cardiac allograft vasculopathy and poor prognosis than early C4d positivity (within 1 year). The authors of the study suggest a prognostic role for C4d in heart transplantation warranting routine long-term detection of this marker in the pathologic evaluation of cardiac AMR.
Biomedica’s Anti C4d Antibodies allow the identification of human complement split product C4d in paraffin and frozen sections, and by flow cytometry.
Husain et al. Routine C4d immunohistochemistry in cardiac allografts: Long-term outcomes. J Heart Lung Transplant 2017: 36(12):1329-1335