Bone Health & Osteoporosis - what women should know
Osteoporosis is a disease that weakens bone. When women get older, at the time around menopause, bone loss increases. Poor nutrition, lack of exercise, hormonal changes and other factors influence bone health. Early intervention can delay the development of osteoporosis and novel biomarkers may help to identify people at risk.
Bone Health & Osteoporosis – what women should know
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Bone Health & Osteoporosis – what women should know
The effect of exercise intensity on bone in postmenopausal women (part 2): A meta-analysis.
Kistler-Fischbacher M, Weeks BK, Beck BR. Bone. 2021 Feb;143:115697. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2020.115697. Epub 2020 Dec 24. PMID: 33357834.
Background: Previous reviews have concluded that exercise has only modest effects on bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women. Despite the well-recognized strong positive relationship between load magnitude and bone response observed from animal research, the majority of human trials have examined the effects of only low to moderate intensity exercise on bone. We speculated that meta-analysing according to intensity may reveal a more potent exercise effect at higher intensity.
Objectives: To determine the effects of low, moderate and high intensity exercise on BMD at the spine and hip in postmenopausal women.
Methods: Electronic databases and reference lists were searched for RCTs that examined the effect of exercise compared to control on DXA-derived lumbar spine, femoral neck or total hip BMD in healthy postmenopausal women. Interventions were classified as low, moderate or high intensity and pooled based on classification. Mean differences (MD) were calculated using random effects models and a risk of bias analysis was undertaken. To determine the effect of different exercise types (resistance and impact training) on BMD outcomes, subgroup analyses for all intensity categories and outcomes were conducted. Separate meta-analyses were undertaken to examine the influence of adding exercise to a bone medication intervention and to examine exercise effects on fracture risk.
Results: Fifty-three trials, testing 63 interventions (19 low, 40 moderate, 4 high intensity) were included. At the lumbar spine, high intensity exercise yielded greater BMD effects (MD = 0.031 g/cm2 95% CI [0.012, 0.049], p = 0.002) than moderate (MD = 0.012 g/cm2 95% CI [0.008, 0.017], p < 0.001) and low intensity (MD = 0.010 g/cm2 95% CI [0.005, 0.015], p < 0.001). Low and moderate intensity exercise was equally effective at the femoral neck (low: 0.011 g/cm2 95% CI [0.006, 0.016], p < 0.001; moderate: 0.011 g/cm2 95% CI [0.007, 0.015], p < 0.001), but no effect of high-intensity exercise was observed. Moderate intensity exercise increased total hip BMD (0.008 g/cm2 95% CI [0.004, 0.012], p < 0.001), but low intensity did not. There were insufficient data to meta-analyse the effect of high intensity exercise at the total hip. Resistance training, potentially in combination with impact training, appears to be the most effective osteogenic stimulus at the spine and hip. Findings from meta-regression analyses were not informative and no influence of exercise on medication efficacy was observed. Risk of bias was mainly low or unclear due to insufficient information reported.
Conclusion: High intensity exercise is a more effective stimulus for lumbar spine BMD than low or moderate intensity, but not femoral neck BMD, however, the latter finding may be due to lack of power. While data from high-intensity exercise interventions are limited, the current comprehensive meta-analysis demonstrates the same positive relationship between load magnitude and bone response in humans that is observed in animal research. Findings have implications for optimal exercise prescription for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.
Nutrition in the prevention and control of osteoporosis.
Ortega RM, Jiménez Ortega AI, Martínez García RM, Cuadrado Soto E, Aparicio A, López-Sobaler AM. Nutrición en la prevención y el control de la osteoporosis Nutr Hosp. 2021 Jan 13;37(Spec No2):63-66. Spanish. doi: 10.20960/nh.03360. PMID: 32993301.
Objective: although osteoporosis develops in advanced stages of life, it must be prevented and stopped from the pediatric age, acting on modifiable factors, especially diet and lifestyle. The objective of this work is to review the latest evidence on nutritional improvements that can help in the prevention and control of the disease. Methods: bibliographic search related to the topic. Results: it is advisable to avoid energy restrictions, especially in postmenopausal women and particularly if they have osteopenia/osteoporosis since, in relation to these pathologies, excess weight may be preferable, rather than underweight. Protein intake higher than the recommended one is beneficial for the bone, provided that the calcium intake is adequate. Excessive intake of sugar and saturated fat should be avoided, but attempts should be made to achieve the nutritional goals set for ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and fiber. It is important to monitor vitamin D status and calcium intake, which is inadequate in high percentages of individuals, as well as improving the contribution of vitamins K, C and group B, and also magnesium, potassium, iron, zinc, copper, fluorine, manganese, silicon and boron, and avoiding the excessive contribution of phosphorus and sodium. Conclusions: osteoporosis is an underdiagnosed pathology and of increasing prevalence. Due to its high morbidity and mortality, prevention is important and, from a nutritional point of view, it is convenient to bring the diet closer to the theoretical ideal. In general, increasing the consumption of dairy products, fish, vegetables and fruits, as well as reducing the consumption of salt, during childhood and throughout life, seems convenient for the bone improvement of most of the population.
Compston JE, McClung MR, Leslie WD. Lancet. 2019 Jan 26;393(10169):364-376. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32112-3. PMID: 30696576.
Fractures resulting from osteoporosis become increasingly common in women after age 55 years and men after age 65 years, resulting in substantial bone-associated morbidities, and increased mortality and health-care costs. Research advances have led to a more accurate assessment of fracture risk and have increased the range of therapeutic options available to prevent fractures. Fracture risk algorithms that combine clinical risk factors and bone mineral density are now widely used in clinical practice to target high-risk individuals for treatment. The discovery of key pathways regulating bone resorption and formation has identified new approaches to treatment with distinctive mechanisms of action. Osteoporosis is a chronic condition and long-term, sometimes lifelong, management is required. In individuals at high risk of fracture, the benefit versus risk profile is likely to be favourable for up to 10 years of treatment with bisphosphonates or denosumab. In people at a very high or imminent risk of fracture, therapy with teriparatide or abaloparatide should be considered; however, since treatment duration with these drugs is restricted to 18-24 months, treatment should be continued with an antiresorptive drug. Individuals at high risk of fractures do not receive adequate treatment and strategies to address this treatment gap-eg, widespread implementation of Fracture Liaison Services and improvement of adherence to therapy-are important challenges for the future.
The Utility of Biomarkers in Osteoporosis Management.
Garnero P. Mol Diagn Ther. 2017 Aug;21(4):401-418. doi: 10.1007/s40291-017-0272-1. PMID: 28271451.
The measurement of bone turnover markers is useful for the clinical investigation of patients with osteoporosis. Among the available biochemical markers, the measurements of serum procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (PINP) and the crosslinked C-terminal telopeptide (serum CTX) have been recommended as reference markers of bone formation and bone resorption, respectively. The important sources of preanalytical and analytical variability have been identified for both markers, and precise measurement can now be obtained. Reference interval data for PINP and CTX have been generated across different geographical locations, which allows optimum clinical interpretation. However, conventional protein-based markers have some limitations, including a lack of specificity for bone tissue, and their inability to reflect osteocyte activity or periosteal metabolism. Thus, novel markers such as periostin, sclerostin and, sphingosine 1-phosphate have been developed to address some of these shortcomings. Recent studies suggest that the measurements of circulating microRNAs, a new class of marker, may represent early biological markers in osteoporosis. Bone markers have been shown to be a useful adjunct to bone mineral density for identifying postmenopausal women at high risk for fracture. Because levels of bone markers respond rapidly to both anabolic and anticatabolic drugs, they are very useful for investigating the mechanism of action of new therapies and, potentially, for predicting their efficacy to reduce fracture risk.