Sclerostin in women with anorexia nervosa
Decrease of bone biomarker Sclerostin in women with anorexia nervosa during nutrition therapy – indication of reduced bone loss
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder and has one of the highest mortality rates of any mental illness. It affects roughly 2.9 million people and many experience bone loss and increased fracture risk. In a 3-year prospective study, Swedish researchers looked into the long-term effects of nutrition therapy. They investigated bone and mineral metabolism and biomarkers young women with AN. Their results showed that body mass index (BMI) and fat mass was increased. The regulatory bone biomarker Sclerostin decreased during nutrition therapy and further over 3 years, indicating reduced bone loss.
Read more: Bone mass and biomarkers in young women with anorexia nervosa: a prospective 3-year follow-up study.
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Bone mass and biomarkers in young women with anorexia nervosa: a prospective 3-year follow-up study.
Svedlund A, Pettersson C, Tubic B, Ellegård L, Elfvin A, Magnusson P, Swolin-Eide D. J Bone Miner Metab. 2022 Aug 12. doi: 10.1007/s00774-022-01359-x. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35960382.
Introduction: Anorexia nervosa (AN) increases the risk of impaired bone health, low areal bone mineral density (aBMD), and subsequent fractures. This prospective study investigated the long-term effects of bone and mineral metabolism on bone and biomarkers in 22 women with AN.
Materials and methods: Body composition and aBMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Total and free 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), C-terminal collagen cross-links (CTX), osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP), leptin, sclerostin, and oxidized/non-oxidized parathyroid hormone (PTH) were analyzed before and after 12 weeks of intensive nutrition therapy and again 3 years later. An age-matched comparison group of 17 healthy women was recruited for the 3-year follow-up.
Results: Body mass index (BMI) and fat mass increased from baseline to 3 years in women with AN. Sclerostin decreased during nutrition therapy and further over 3 years, indicating reduced bone loss. CTX was elevated at baseline and after 12 weeks but decreased over 3 years. BALP increased during nutrition therapy and stabilized over 3 years. Free 25OHD was stable during treatment but decreased over 3 years. Non-oxidized PTH was stable during treatment but increased over 3 years. Trabecular volumetric BMD in AN patients decreased during the first 12 weeks and over 3 years despite stable BMI and bone biomarkers implying increased BMD.
Conclusion: Our findings highlight the importance of early detection and organized long-term follow-up of bone health in young women with a history of AN.
Keywords: DXA; Eating disorder; Osteoporosis; Sclerostin; Vitamin D
Anorexia nervosa: 30-year outcome.
Dobrescu SR, Dinkler L, Gillberg C, Råstam M, Gillberg C, Wentz E. Br J Psychiatry. 2020 Feb;216(2):97-104. doi: 10.1192/bjp.2019.113. PMID: 31113504; PMCID: PMC7557598.
Background: Little is known about the long-term outcome of anorexia nervosa.
Aims: To study the 30-year outcome of adolescent-onset anorexia nervosa.
Method: All 4291 individuals born in 1970 and attending eighth grade in 1985 in Gothenburg, Sweden were screened for anorexia nervosa. A total of 24 individuals (age cohort for anorexia nervosa) were pooled with 27 individuals with anorexia nervosa (identified through community screening) who were born in 1969 and 1971-1974. The 51 individuals with anorexia nervosa and 51 school- and gender-matched controls were followed prospectively and examined at mean ages of 16, 21, 24, 32 and 44. Psychiatric disorders, health-related quality of life and general outcome were assessed.
Results: At the 30-year follow-up 96% of participants agreed to participate. There was no mortality. Of the participants, 19% had an eating disorder diagnosis (6% anorexia nervosa, 2% binge-eating disorder, 11% other specified feeding or eating disorder); 38% had other psychiatric diagnoses; and 64% had full eating disorder symptom recovery, i.e. free of all eating disorder criteria for 6 consecutive months. During the elapsed 30 years, participants had an eating disorder for 10 years, on average, and 23% did not receive psychiatric treatment. Good outcome was predicted by later age at onset among individuals with adolescent-onset anorexia nervosa and premorbid perfectionism.
Conclusions: This long-term follow-up study reflects the course of adolescent-onset anorexia nervosa and has shown a favourable outcome regarding mortality and full symptom recovery. However, one in five had a chronic eating disorder.
Mitchell JE, Peterson CB. N Engl J Med. 2020 Apr 2;382(14):1343-1351. doi: 10.1056/NEJMcp1803175. PMID: 32242359.