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Sclerostin ELISA

The internationally most referenced Sclerostin ELISA!


Assay characteristics:

Cat.No.: BI-20492
Method: Sandwich ELISA, HRP/TMB, 12x8-well strips
Sample type:Serum, plasma (EDTA, hep), urine protocol available
Standard range:0-240 pmol/l (6 serum based standards)
Standard points:0/15/30/60/120/240 pmol/l
Control:1 serum based control
Sample size:20 µl / well
Incubation time:Overnight / 1 h / 30 min
Unit conversion:1 pg/ml = 0.044 pmol/l (MW: 22.5 kDa)

LOD: 3.2 pmol/l (0 pmol/l + 3 SD); LLOQ: < 7.5 pmol/l

Intra-assay (n=8) ≤ 7%, Inter-assay (n=6) ≤ 10%

The mean recovery of recombinant Sclerostin in human serum samples (n=6) is 94%.

Dilution linearity:
Endogenous Sclerostin:
The mean dilution linearity of endogenous Sclerostin in human serum samples (n=4) is 110% for dilution factors 1+1, 1+3, 1+7.

Recombinant Sclerostin:
The mean dilution linearity for recombinant Sclerostin in human serum samples (n=3) is 98% for dilution factors 1+1, 1+3.

Cross reactivity: 
The assay does not detect Noggin.
The assay does not detect Wise (SOSTDC1).

Species cross reactivity:
Rat, mouse: The assay does not detect rat or mouse Sclerostin.
Primates: The sequence homology of human Sclerostin to various primate species is >95%. It is likely that the assay can be used for these species. Internal validations have not been carried out. However, data from other laboratories show positive results.

Serum  values from apparently healthy individuals:
Median (serum, n=411): 24.14. pmol/l. 
It is recommended to establish the normal range for each laboratory. 

Principle of the assay: 

Manual ELISAs - easily adaptable for automation! 

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BI-20492 Sclerostin ELISA IFU 

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Click here for assay validation data (S/R, dilution linearity, precision, ...).

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Canonical Wnt-signalling plays an important role in the regulation of bone homeostasis by promoting the development of osteoblasts. Negative regulators of the Wnt pathway are important new therapeutic targets for the treatment of diseases with enhanced bone resorption. One of these molecules is Sclerostin, a 22.5 kD secreted glycoprotein, which acts by binding to the Wnt-coreceptor LRP5 thus preventing the binding of Wnt molecules.

Sclerostin is nearly exclusively produced in osteocytes. Therefore it is considered a clinical marker which provides highest bone specificity.

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BI-20492 Sclerostin ELISA MSDS

BI-20492 Sclerostin ELISA Leaflet 




For information about our new bioactive Sclerostin ELISA click here.


Additional background information:

Alternative Names: Sclerostin, SOST, CDD, SOST1, VBCH, DAND6

Regarding the Sclerostin gene:
Entrez/NCBI ID: 50964
Genecards: SOST
OMIM: 605740

Regarding SOST's structure:
Pfam: Sclerostin/SOST

Expression pattern and disease relevance:
Protein Atlas: SOST
Uniport ID: Q9BQB4
Pubmed references: NCBI 50964

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Biomedica Sclerostin ELISA (BI-20492) Reference List

Calcification Propensity of Serum is Independent of Excretory Renal Function - full article
Bernhard Bielesz, Thomas Reiter, Rodrig Marculescu, Andreas Gleiss, Marija Bojic, Heidi Kieweg, and Daniel Cejka
Sci Rep. 2017; 7: 17941.
PMID: 5738386

Study population: Chronic kidney disease patients (n=118)
Sample type:
Conclusion: "Vascular calcification is a component of cardiovascular disease, which is leading cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). A functional assay (T50-test) measuring the propensity of human serum to calcify associates with mortality and cardiovascular events in CKD patients. [...] T50 values depend mainly on the concentration of promoters and inhibitors of calcification in serum, but not excretory kidney function."

Periostin and sclerostin levels in juvenile Paget’s disease - full article Stergios A. Polyzos, Polyzois Makras, Athanasios D. Anastasilakis, Gesthimani Mintziori, Marina Kita, Athanasios Papatheodorou Panagiotis Kokkoris and Evangelos Terpos
Clin Cases Miner Bone Metab. 2017 May-Aug; 14(2): 269–271.
PMCID: PMC5726226

Study population: Juvenile Paget’s disease (JPD) (n=2) and healthy controls (n=10)
Sample type: Serum
Conclusion: "[...] a trend towards higher periostin levels was observed in JPD patients, whereas sclerostin levels were similar to controls."

Interactions of sclerostin with FGF23, soluble klotho and vitamin D in renal transplantation - full article
Lida Tartaglione, Marzia Pasquali, Silverio Rotondi, Maria Luisa Muci, Cristiana Leonangeli, Alessio Farcomeni, Valeria Fassino, and Sandro Mazzaferro
PLoS One. 2017; 12(5): e0178637.
PMCID: PMC5448809

Study population: kidney transplant (KTR) patients (n=80)
Sample type: Serum
Conclusion: " Sclerostin levels in KTR are normal and influenced more by bone turnover than by eGFR. Its involvement with other hormones of mineral homeostasis (FGF23/Klotho and Vitamin D) is part of the sophisticated cross-talk between bone and the kidney."

Circulating levels of sclerostin but not DKK1 associate with laboratory parameters of CKD-MBD - full article
Geert J. Behets, Liesbeth Viaene, Björn Meijers, Frank Blocki, Vincent M. Brandenburg, Anja Verhulst, Patrick C. D’Haese, and Pieter Evenepoel
PLOS ONE, 2017
PMID: 28493902

Study population: chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients (n=308), healthy controls (n=49)
Sample type: Serum
Conclusion: "In CKD, serum levels of the Wnt inhibitors DKK1 and sclerostin are unrelated, indicating different sites of origin and/ or different regulatory mechanisms. Sclerostin, as opposed to DKK1, may qualify as a biomarker of CKD-MBD, particularly in dialysis patients. DKK1 serum levels, remarkably, correlate almost uniquely with blood platelet counts."

Sclerostin measurement in human disease: Validity and current limitations.
Costa AG, Cremers S, Bilezikian JP.
Bone. 2017 Mar;96:24-28.
PMID: 27742501

Study population: healthy individuals (n=411)
Sample type: Serum
Conclusion: "[...] circulating sclerostin measurements should be interpreted cautiously with attention to reference ranges for each assay and whether the measurement is made in serum or plasma."
Organism: Human

Glucocorticoid therapy causes contradictory changes of serum Wnt signaling-related molecules in systemic autoimmune diseases
Mai Kawazoe, Kaichi Kaneko, Kotaro Shikano, Natsuko Kusunoki, Toshihiro Nanki, Shinichi Kawai
Clinical Rheumatology, 2017, 1-10
PMID: 28551822

Study population: patients with systemic autoimmune diseases under glucocorticoid therapy (n=91)
Sample type: Serum
Conclusion: "Bone formation might be impaired at least in the first week of the initiation of glucocorticoid therapy by increase of the serum Wnt signaling inhibitors; however, their reductions in the subsequent weeks were contradictory to the maintained suppression of the bone formation markers after glucocorticoid therapy for patients with systemic autoimmune diseases."

Atypical skeletal manifestations of rickets in a familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia patient
Bo Wu, Ou Wang, Yan Jiang, Mei Li, Xiaoping Xing, Weibo Xia,
Bone research, 2017
PMCID: PMC5486235
Study population: patients with familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) (n=1)
Sample type: Serum
Conclusion: "Our study revealed that rickets-like features have a tendency to present atypically in FHH patients who have a mild vitamin D deficiency, and that CaSR mutations may have a partial role in the pathogenesis of skeletal deformities."

Clearance of Sclerostin, Osteocalcin, Fibroblast Growth Factor 23, and Osteoprotegerin by Dialysis
Carlson N., Mortensen O.H., Axelsen M., Pedersen R.S., Heaf J.G.
Blood Purification, 2017, 122-128
PMID: 28690912

Study population:chronic hemodialysis patients (n=10)
Sample type: Plasma and dialysate
Conclusion: " End-stage renal disease is associated with the pronounced dysregulation of mineral bone metabolism; however, the impact and clearance of mineral bone metabolism factors during dialysis remain largely undescribed. [...] The intradialytic clearance of osteocalcin, FGF23, sclerostin, and osteoprotegerin occurs; however, only clearance of FGF23 is directly correlated with the ultrafiltration rate. The effects of dialytic clearance on mineral bone metabolism are, however, uncertain and intradialytic plasma concentrations of the studied substrates remained largely unchanged."

Low periostin levels in adult patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis are independently associated with the disease activity
Athanasios D.Anastasilakis, Stergios A.Polyzos,  Marina Tsoli, Athanasios Papatheodorou, Panagiotis Kokkoris, Gregory Kaltsas, Evangelos Terpos, Polyzois Makras
Metabolism, 2017, 198-201
PMID: 28521873

Study population: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) patients (n=38), healthy controls (n=38)
Sample type: Serum
Conclusion: "Serum periostin levels were significantly lower in LCH patients than controls, but this was not the case for sclerostin levels which did not differ between patients and controls, respectively. [...] Lower serum periostin levels were observed in adult LCH patients with active disease. The finding warrants further investigation to define whether periostin could serve as a serum biomarker for LCH activity."

Serum sclerostin levels in renal cell carcinoma patients with bone metastases
C. Wibmer, K. Amrein, A. Fahrleitner-Pammer, M. M. Gilg, A. Berghold, G. C. Hutterer, W. Maurer-Ertl,  A. Gerger, A. Leithner, M. Pichler and J. Szkandera
Sci Rep. 2016; 6: 33551.
PMCID: PMC5036091

Study population: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients patients (n=53), healthy controls (n=53)
Sample type: Serum
Conclusion: "As renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients often present with osteolytic metastases, we aimed to investigate serum sclerostin levels in RCC patients. [...] There was no significant association between eGFR (estimated glomerular filtration rate) and serum sclerostin levels in RCC patients (r
=0.05; p=0.74) and controls (r=0.06; p=0.68). Our results indicate that serum sclerostin levels appear not to be a valuable biomarker to assess the occurrence of bone metastases in RCC patients."

Direct effects of physical training on markers of bone metabolism and serum sclerostin concentrations in older adults with low bone mass
Gabriella Császárné Gombos, Viktória Bajsz, Emese Pék, Béla Schmidt, Eszter Sió, Bálint Molics, and József Betlehem
BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2016; 17: 254.
PMCID: PMC4899888

Study population: osteoporosis patients (n=150)
Sample type: Serum
Conclusion: "In participants with low bone mass, resistance exercise influenced the serum concentrations of type I collagen (CTX), a marker of bone resorption, but walking did not."

Idiopathic Acquired Osteosclerosis In A Middle-aged Woman With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Núria Guañabens, Steven Mumm, Laia Gifre, Silvia Ruiz Gaspà, Jennifer L. Demertzis, Marina Stolina, Deborah V. Novack and Michael P Whyte
J Bone Miner Res. 2016 Sep; 31(9): 1774–1782.
PMCID: PMC5010446

Study population: osteosclerosis patient (n=1)
Sample type: Serum
Conclusion: "Perhaps [the patient's] osteosclerosis reflected an interval of autoimmune-mediated resistance to SOST and/or RANKL."

Serum Sclerostin as an Independent Marker of Peripheral Arterial Stiffness in Renal Transplantation Recipients
Bang-Gee Hsu, Hung-Hsiang Liou, Chung-Jen Lee, Yen-Cheng Chen, Guan-Jin Ho, and Ming-Che Lee
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016 Apr; 95(15): e3300.
PMCID: PMC4839814

Study population: renal transplant (TR) recipients (n=82)
Sample type: Serum
Conclusion: "In this study, serum sclerostin level, but not DKK1, was proved to be involved in the pathogenetic process of peripheral arterial stiffness in RT recipients."

Bone loss in patients with early inflammatory back pain suggestive of spondyloarthritis: results from the prospective DESIR cohort.
Karine Briot, Adrien Etcheto, Corinne Miceli-Richard, Maxime Dougados, and Christian Roux
Rheumatology, 2016; 55: 335 – 342
PMID: 26361878

Study population: patients with symptoms suggestive of early axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) (n=265)
Sample type: Serum
Conclusion: "Among patients with symptoms suggestive of early axial SpA, 42.3% of patients have significant bone loss over 2 years. Anti-TNF therapy is protective against bone loss and baseline use of NSAIDs has a protective effect on hip bone loss."

Serum Sclerostin Levels in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Their Association with Bone Turnover Markers and Bone Mineral Densitometry
Abdulrahman Y. Almansouri,corresponding author Mohammed E. Abdulfatah, Omar H. Baaqil, Alaa A. Bakheet, Sarah A. Turki, Mamdouh M. Kotb, Alaa Althubaiti, Majed M. Almaghrabi, Abdulrahman M. Althubaiti, Badr M. Madani, and Ali S. M. Jawad
J Bone Metab. 2016 Feb; 23(1): 16–22.
PMCID: PMC4791433

Study population: human im-munodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients (n=33) and healthy controls (n=63)
Sample type: Serum
Conclusion: "Untreated HIV and the resulting immune deficiency and/or systemic inflammation could be an important regulator of serum sclerostin in this population."

Sclerostin as a novel marker of bone turnover in athletes
A Zagrodna, P Jóźków, M Mędraś, M Majda, and M Słowińska-Lisowska
Biol Sport. 2016 Mar; 33(1): 83–87
PMCID: PMC4763547

Study population: healthy men (n=53)
Sample type: Serum
Conclusion: "[...] regular, long-lasting physical training may be associated with higher concentration of sclerostin. It seems that increased sclerostin is not related to other bone turnover markers (PTH, P1NP)."

Sclerostin serum levels in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases
Concepción Fernández-Roldán, Fernanda Genre, Raquel López-Mejías, Begoña Ubilla, Verónica Mijares, Daniel Sánchez Cano, Concepción López Robles, José Luis Callejas-Rubio, Raquel Ríos Fernández, Manuela Expósito Ruiz, Miguel Á González-Gay, and Norberto Ortego Centeno
Bonekey Rep. 2016; 5: 775.
PMCID: PMC4747078

Study population: systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (n=38), systemic sclerosis (SSc) (n=8) and Crohn's disease (CD) (n=20) patients, healthy controls (n=20)
Sample type: Serum
Conclusion: "Sclerostin levels seem to have a heterogeneous pattern in different autoimmune diseases. SLE and SSc patients did not differ from healthy controls regarding sclerostin levels. The CD group had significantly lower values compared with SSc patients. Factors associated with sclerostin levels in autoimmune diseases seem to be the same than in the general population."

Increased Dickkopf-1 in Recent-onset Rheumatoid Arthritis is a New Biomarker of Structural Severity. Data from the ESPOIR Cohort
Raphaèle Seror, Saida Boudaoud, Stephan Pavy, Gaetane Nocturne, Thierry Schaeverbeke, Alain Saraux, Philippe Chanson, Jacques-Eric Gottenberg, Valérie Devauchelle-Pensec, Gabriel J. Tobón, Xavier Mariette, and Corinne Miceli-Richarda
Sci Rep. 2016; 6: 18421.
PMCID: PMC4726234

Study population: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (n=813)
Sample type: Serum
Conclusion: "This study demonstrates that increased DKK-1 level at baseline predicted structural progression after 2-year follow-up and suggests that DKK-1 might be a new structural biomarker for early RA."

How Accurate is Your Sclerostin Measurement? Comparison Between Three Commercially Available Sclerostin ELISA Kits
Isabelle Piec, Christopher Washbourne, Jonathan Tang, Emily Fisher, Julie Greeves, Sarah Jackson, and William D. Fraser
Calcif Tissue Int. 2016; 98: 546–555.
PMCID: PMC4860200

Study population: healthy subjects (n=46)
Sample type: Serum and EDTA plasma
Conclusion: "Direct comparison of studies using different kits is not possible and great care should be given to measurement of sclerostin, with traceability of reagents. Standardization with appropriate material is required before different sclerostin assays can be introduced in clinical practice."

Validation of commercially available ELISAs for the detection of circulating sclerostin in hemodialysis patients
Sebastian F. Mause, Annika Deck, Mark Hennies, Nadine Kaesler, Pieter Evenepoel, William A. Boisvert, Ulf Janssen and Vincent M. Brandenburg
Discoveries (Craiova). 2016; 4(1): e55.
PMCID: PMC4829955

Study population: end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients (n=46)
Sample type: Serum, plasma
Conclusion: "Careful consideration of the pre-analytical handling and comparative assay validation are necessary to facilitate a more differentiated interpretation of studies reporting circulating sclerostin levels. The presence of a proportional bias demonstrates that in HD patients the two ELISAs for measuring sclerostin should not be used interchangeably. Furthermore, caution is necessary when comparing sclerostin results obtained from different blood sample types."

Bone metabolism and renal stone risk during International Space Station missions-full publication
Scott M.Smith, Martina Heer, Linda C.Shackelford, Jean D.Sibonga, JordanSpatz, Robert A.Pietrzyk, Edgar K.Hudson, Sara R.Zwart.

Bone, 2015;712-720.
PMID: 26456109

Study population: healthy subjects (austronauts) (n=7)
Sample type: Serum, plasma
Conclusion: "Our results are consistent with the growing body of literature showing that the hyper-resorptive state of bone that is brought on by spaceflight can be countered pharmacologically or mitigated through an exercise-induced increase in bone formation, with nutritional support."

Increase in Dickkopf-1 Serum Level in Recent Spondyloarthritis. Data from the DESIR Cohort-full publication
Gaetane Nocturne, Stephan Pavy, Saida Boudaoud, Raphaèle Seror, Philippe Goupille, Philippe Chanson, Désirée van der Heijde, Floris van Gaalen, Francis Berenbaum, Xavier Mariette, Karine Briot, Antoine Feydy, Pascal Claudepierre, Philippe Dieudé, Joanne Nithitham, Kimberly E. Taylor, Lindsey A. Criswell, Maxime Dougados, Christian Roux, and Corinne Miceli-Richard
PLoS One. 2015; 10(8): e0134974.

PMCID: PMC4552086

Study population: Spondyloarthritis (SpA) patients (n=708)
Sample type: Serum
Conclusion: "DKK-1 serum levels were increased and SOST levels were decreased among a large cohort of patients with early axial SpA compared to healthy controls. DKK-1 serum levels were mostly associated with biological inflammation and SOST serum levels."

Mechanisms of Normalisation of Bone Metabolism during Recovery from Hyperthyroidism: Potential Role for Sclerostin and Parathyroid Hormone -full publication
Elżbieta Skowrońska-Jóźwiak, Krzysztof C. Lewandowski, Zbigniew Adamczewski, Kinga Krawczyk-Rusiecka, and Andrzej Lewiński
Int J Endocrinol. 2015; 2015: 948384.
PMCID: PMC4561097

Study population: hyperthyroidism patients (n=33)
Sample type: Serum
Conclusion: "Successful treatment of hyperthyroidism results in a significant decrease in serum sclerostin and bone markers concentrations, accompanied by an increase of PTH."

Changes in Serum Levels of Myokines and Wnt-Antagonists after an Ultramarathon Race -full publication
Katharina Kerschan-Schindl, Markus M. Thalmann, Elisabeth Weiss, Maria Tsironi, Ursula Föger-Samwald, Johann Meinhart, Katerina Skenderi, and Peter Pietschmann
PLoS One. 2015; 10(7): e0132478.
PMCID: PMC4493015

Study population: healthy subjects (ultramarathon runners) (n=19)
Sample type: Serum
Conclusion: "The increase of serum levels of myostatin appears to reflect muscle catabolic processes induced by overstrenuous exercise. After the short-term uncoupling of bone turnover participation in an ultradistance race seems to initiate a long-term positive effect on bone indicated by the low-level inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway."

Increased Sclerostin Levels after Further Ablation of Remnant Estrogen by Aromatase Inhibitors - full publication
Wonjin Kim, Yoonjung Chung, Se Hwa Kim, Sehee Park, Jae Hyun Bae, Gyuri Kim, Su Jin Lee, Jo Eun Kim, Byeong-Woo Park, Sung-Kil Lim, and Yumie Rhee
Endocrinol Metab (Seoul). 2015 Mar; 30(1): 58–64.
PMCID: PMC4384667

Study population: Breast cancer patients (n=90), healthy controls (n=36)
Sample type: Serum
Conclusion: "Serum sclerostin levels increased with absolute deficiency of residual estrogens in postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive breast cancer who underwent AI therapy with concurrent bone loss."

Sclerostin and INS Resistance in Prediabetes: Evidence of a Cross Talk Between Bone and Glucose Metabolism - full publication
Giuseppe Daniele, Deidre Winnier, Andrea Mari, Jan Bruder, Marcel Fourcaudot, Zuo Pengou, Devjit Tripathy, Christopher Jenkinson, and Franco Folli
Diabetes Care,
2015; 38: 1509 - 1517.
PMID: 26456109

Study population: Impaired glucose regulation (IGR) (n=90), healthy controls (n=36)
Sample type: Serum
Conclusion: "Sclerostin levels are increased in individuals with prediabetes and correlated with INS resistance in skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue."

Association of Serum Sclerostin with Vascular Calcification in African Ancestry Men - full publication
Allison L Kuipers, Iva Miljkovic, J Jeffery Carr, James G Terry, Cara S Nestlerode, Yaorong Ge, Clareann H Bunker, Alan L Patrick, and Joseph M Zmuda
2015; 131: AP298.
PMID: 25618029

Study population: coronary artery calcification (CAC) (n=57) and aortic artery calcification (AAC) (n=131) patients
Sample type: Serum
Conclusion: "Among Afro-Caribbean men, greater serum sclerostin concentrations were associated with prevalence and extent of CAC."

Serum Sclerostin levels are reduced by treatment with online postdilution hemodiafiltration
Camiel LM de Roij van Zuijdewijn, Muriel PC Grooteman, Marc G Vervloet, Menso J Nube, Peter J Blankestijn, Marinus A van den Dorpel, Denis Fouque, Solenne Pelletier, Michiel L Bots, and Piet M ter Wee
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.,
2015; 30: iii324.

High Parathyroid Hormone Level and Osteoporosis Predict Progression of Coronary Artery Calcification in Patients on Dialysis - full publication
Hartmut H. Malluche, Gustav Blomquist, Marie-Claude Monier-Faugere, Thomas L. Cantor, and Daniel L. Davenport
J. Am. Soc. Nephrol.,
2015; 10.1681/ASN.2014070686.
PMID: 25838468

Study population: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients (n=38)
Sample type: Serum
Conclusion: "Our results confirm a role for bone in CKD–associated CAC prevalence and progression."

Fetuin-A is related to syndesmophytes in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a case control study - full publication
Tugba Tuylu, Ismail Sari, Dilek Solmaz, Didem Leyla Kozaci, Servet Akar, Necati Gunay, Fatos Onen, and Nurullah Akkoc
Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2014 Oct; 69(10): 688–693.

Study population: ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients with (n=45) and without syndesmophytes (n=49), healthy controls (n=68)
Sample type: Serum
Conclusion: "Patients with syndesmophytes had significantly higher levels of fetuin-A compared with patients without syndesmophytes and controls. However, fetuin-A was not different between the patients without syndesmophytes and controls. Bone morphogenetic protein-7 was significantly lower; dickkopf-1 was significantly higher in patients with ankylosing spondylitis compared with controls. The sclerostin concentrations were not different between the groups. In regression analysis, fetuin-A was an independent, significant predictor of syndesmophytes."

The Effect of Renal Dysfunction on Circulating Sclerostin Level in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes - full publication
Se Hwa Kim, Soo Young Yoon, Sung-Kil Lim, and Yumie Rhee
Int J Endocrinol. 2014; 2014: 715908.
PMCID: PMC4099222

Study population: Type 2 diabetic patients with or without chronic kidney disease (n=302)
Sample type: Serum
Conclusion: "There was a strong correlation between sclerostin level with renal function presented as serum creatinine and eGFR. Serum sclerostin level was significantly higher in patients with CKD-G3 stage than those with CKD-G1/2 stages after adjusting for age, sex, and BMI. Patients with CKD-G4/5 stages had dramatically increased level of circulating sclerostin. Multiple regression analyses found that age, sex, and eGFR were independent determining factors for circulating sclerostin level."

Serum levels of sclerostin, Dickkopf-1, and secreted frizzled-related protein-4 are not changed in individuals with high bone mass causing mutations in LRP5
C. A. Simpson,  D. Foer, G. S. Lee, J. Bihuniak, B. Sun, R. Sullivan, J. Belsky, and K. L. Insogna
Osteoporos Int. 2014 Oct; 25(10): 2383–2388.
PMCID: PMC4659359

Study population: Patients with high bone mass and LRP5 mutations (n=16), related unaffected indiviuals (n=13), unrelated healthy controls (n=24)
Sample type: Serum
Conclusion: "Circulating levels of endogenous Wnt inhibitors do not change in patients with gain-of-function mutations in LRP5 including Dkk1, which is suppressed by Wnt signaling."

Serum Sclerostin in Hepatitis C Virus Infected Patients
Emilio González-Reimers, Javier López-Prieto, Ricardo Pelazas-González, M.Remedios Alemán-Valls, María José de la Vega-Prieto, Carlos Jorge-Ripper, M. Carmen Durán-Castellón, and F Santolaria-Fernández
J Bone Metab. 2014 Feb; 21(1): 69–75.
PMCID: PMC3970296

Study population: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected patients (n=40), healthy controls (n=20)
Sample type: Serum
Conclusion: "Serum sclerostin levels were within the normal range in HCV patients, and correlated directly with BMD and serum telopeptide. In addition, the relationships of sclerostin and osteocalcin with variables associated with INS resistance suggested the role of bones for intermediary metabolisms."

Serum Sclerostin and adverse outcomes in nondialyzed chronic kidney disease patients. - full publication
Kanbay M, Siriopol D, Saglam M, Kurt YG, Gok M, Cetinkaya H, Karaman M, Unal HU, Oguz Y, Sari S, Eyileten T, Goldsmith D, Vural A, Veisa G, Covic A, Yilmaz MI.
J Clin Endocrinol, 2014; 99(10): E1854–E1861
PMID: 25057883

Study population: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) patients (n=173), healthy controls (n=47)
Sample type: Serum
Conclusion: "This is the first study that shows that serum sclerostin values are associated, even after multiple adjustments, with fatal and nonfatal CVEs in a nondialyzed CKD population."

Gender differences in sclerostin and clinical characteristics in type 1 diabetes mellitus - full publication
Antonino Catalano, Basilio Pintaudi, Nancy Morabito, Giacoma Di Vieste, Loretta Giunta, Maria Lucia Bruno, Domenico Cucinotta, Antonino Lasco, and Antonino Di Benedetto
Eur. J. Endocrinol., 2014; 171: 293 - 300.
PMID: 24891138

Study population: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients (n=69)
Sample type:
Conclusion: "Our data demonstrate that women with T1DM exhibit higher sclerostin levels than men and that circulating sclerostin is not associated with bone turnover markers and phalangeal quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurements. Macroangiopathy was associated with sclerostin levels. "

Biomarkers of Bone Metabolism in Ankylosing Spondylitis in Relation to Osteoproliferation and Osteoporosis - full publication
Eva Klingberg, Merja Nurkkala, Hans Carlsten, and Helena Forsblad-d’Elia
J Rheumatol, 2014; 41: 1349 - 1356.
PMID: 24931960

Study population: Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) patients (n=204), healthy controls (n=80)
Sample type:
Conclusion: "Patients with AS had significantly higher serum levels of Wnt-3a and lower levels of sclerostin and sRANKL compared with controls. High C-reactive protein (CRP) was associated with low sclerostin and DKK-1. In multiple linear regression analyses, increasing Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI) and mSASSS [measures for spinal mobility and structure] were independently associated with older age, male sex, high CRP, and elevated serum levels of Wnt-3a."

Effect of supplemental vitamin D and calcium on serum sclerostin levels - full publication
Bess Dawson-Hughes, Susan S Harris, Lisa Ceglia, and Nancy J Palermo
Eur. J. Endocrinol., 2014; 170: 645 - 650.
PMID: 24488080

Study population: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) patients (n=120)
Sample type:
Conclusion: "Increased sclerostin serum levels in CKD patients are not due to decreased renal elimination. On the contrary, renal elimination increases with declining kidney function."

The relationship between inhibitors of the Wnt signalling pathway (sclerostin and Dickkopf-1) and carotid intima-media thickness in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus
Agostino Gaudio, Filippo Privitera, Ivana Pulvirenti, Elena Canzonieri, Rosario Rapisarda, and Carmelo E Fiore
Diabetes and Vascular Disease Research, 2014; 11: 48-52.
PMID: 24227537

Study population: type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients (n=40), healthy controls (n=40)
Sample type:
Conclusion: "These data suggest that sclerostin, an established modulator of the canonical Wnt signalling, may protect against progression of vascular complications in diabetic patients, possibly by attenuating upregulation of β-catenin activity in the vascular cells."

Sclerostin: another bone-related protein related to all-cause mortality in haemodialysis? - full publication
Liesbeth Viaene, Geert J. Behets, Kathleen Claes, Bjorn Meijers, Franck Blocki, Vincent Brandenburg, Pieter Evenepoel, and Patrick C. D'Haese
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant., 2013; 28: 3024 – 3030
PMID: 23605174

Study population: haemodialysis (HD) patients (n=40)
Sample type:
Conclusion: "High circulating sclerostin levels are associated with improved survival and suggest that a low bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bsAP) activity may be in the causal pathway."

Traditional and Novel Bone Remodeling Markers in Premenopausal and Postmenopausal Women
Sonsoles Botella, Patricia Restituto, Ignacio Monreal, Inmaculada Colina, Amparo Calleja, and Nerea Varo
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 2013; 98: E1740 - E1748.
PMID: 24001743

Study population: Postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (n = 18)
Sample type:
Conclusion: "Our data suggest that measurement of type 1 procollagen (P1NP) and β-type I collagen telopeptides (CTXs) shows adequate analytical performance and could potentially be included in algorithms for the screening of osteoporosis."

Elevated Sclerostin Levels Are Associated With Vertebral Fractures in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Masahiro Yamamoto, Mika Yamauchi, and Toshitsugu Sugimoto
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 2013; 98: 4030 - 4037.
PMID: 23894157

Study population: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients (n = 321)
Sample type:
Conclusion: "Elevated sclerostin levels were associated with an increased risk of vertebral fractures (VFs) in T2DM patients independently of BMD and bone turnover in both genders, suggesting that sclerostin levels may reflect bone fragility attributed to the deterioration of bone quality under the gender-specific range of BMD T scores."

Increased serum sclerostin and decreased serum IGF-1 are associated with vertebral fractures among postmenopausal women with type-2 diabetes. - full publication
Ardawi MS, Akhbar DH, Alshaikh A, Ahmed MM, Qari MH, Rouzi AA, Ali AY, Abdulrafee AA, and Saeda MY
Bone (2013), 56: 355-362.
PMID: 23845326

Study population: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients (n = 482), healthy controls (n = 482)
Sample type:
Conclusion: "Increased serum sclerostin and decreased s-IGF-1 were associated with vertebral fractures (VFs) among postmenopausal women with T2DM, suggesting that sclerostin and/or IGF-1 may be involved in increased bone fragility in T2DM and could be potential markers of VF severity."

Association of Circulating Sclerostin With Bone Mineral Mass, Microstructure, and Turnover Biochemical Markers in Healthy Elderly Men and Women - full publication
Claire Durosier, Antoon van Lierop, Serge Ferrari, Thierry Chevalley, Socrates Papapoulos, and René Rizzoli
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 2013; 98: 3873 - 3883.
PMID: 23864703

Study population: Healthy subjects (n = 187)
Sample type:
Conclusion: "Sclerostin levels are markedly different according to the immunoassay used. Detection of an association with calcitropic hormones or turnover markers relies on the epitope recognized by the immunoassay and adjustment for bone mass."

Atherosclerotic Disease in Type 2 Diabetes Is Associated With an Increase in Sclerostin Levels - full publication
Sonia Morales-Santana, Beatriz García-Fontana, Antonia García-Martín, Pedro Rozas-Moreno, José Antonio García-Salcedo, Rebeca Reyes-García, and Manuel Muñoz-Torres
Diabetes Care, 2013; 36: 1667-1674.
PMID: 23288857

Study population: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients (n = 78)
Sample type:
Conclusion: "Circulating sclerostin is increased in T2DM patients with atherosclerotic lesions. Although the sample size of our study was small, these data suggest that sclerostin levels could be a major modulator of Wnt signaling in AD with implications in T2DM patients."

Relative Influence of Heritability, Environment and Genetics on Serum Sclerostin  - full publication
Allison L. Kuipers, Yingze Zhang, Shibing Yu, Candace M. Kammerer, Cara S. Nestlerode, Yanxia Chu, Clareann H. Bunker, Alan L. Patrick, 4 Victor W. Wheeler, Iva Miljkovic, and Joseph M. Zmuda
Osteoporos Int. 2014 Mar; 25(3): 905–912.
PMCID: PMC3948173

Study population: Related subjects (n = 446)
Sample type:
Conclusion: "Serum sclerostin is a heritable trait that is also determined by environmental factors including age, sex, adiposity, diabetes and kidney function. Three independent common SNPs within the SOST region may collectively account for a significant proportion of the variation in serum sclerostin."

The Relation between Renal Function and Serum Sclerostin in Adult Patients with CKD - full publication
Solenne Pelletier, Laurence Dubourg, Marie-Christine Carlier, Aoumeur Hadj-Aissa, and Denis Fouque
Clin. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol.,
2013; 8: 819-823.
PMID: 23430206

Study population: Chronic kidney disease (n = 90)
Sample type:
Conclusion: "This is the first study reporting higher serum sclerostin levels starting at CKD stage III. GFR, sex, and serum phosphate were the only measures associated with sclerostin level, suggesting that the effect of age reported in the literature might instead be attributable to the altered renal function in the elderly. Correcting the serum phosphorus level may be associated with lower sclerostin levels."

Serum Sclerostin in Alcoholics: A Pilot Study - full publication
E. González-Reimers, C. Martín-González, M.J. de la Vega-Prieto, R. Pelazas-González, C. Fernández-Rodríguez, J. López-Prieto, J. Alvisa-Negrín, and F. Santolaria-Fernández
Alcohol Alcohol.,
May 2013; 48: 278-282.
PMID: 23296214

Study population: alcoholic patients (n = 31), healthy controls (n = 7)
Sample type:
Conclusion: "Serum sclerostin was raised in alcoholic patients, and it correlated with decreased markers of bone synthesis and increased markers of bone breakdown. The elevation in sclerostin levels was clearly related with liver function, but not with ethanol intake, nutritional status or concomitant HCV infection."

High serum sclerostin predicts the occurrence of osteoporotic fractures in postmenopausal women: The center of excellence for osteoporosis research study. - full publication
MS Ardawi, AA Rouzi, SA Al-Sibiani, NS Al-Senani, MH Qari, and SA Mousa
J Bone Miner Res,
Dec 2012; 27(12): 2592-2602.
PMID: 22836717

Study population: osteoporosis patients (n = 707)
Sample type:
Conclusion: "Associations between sclerostin levels and fracture risk were independent of bone mineral density and other confounding risk factors. High sclerostin levels are a strong and independent risk factor for osteoporosis
related fractures among postmenopausal women."

High Circulating Sclerostin is Present in Patients with Thalassemia-associated Osteoporosis and Correlates with Bone Mineral Density.
E Voskaridou, D Christoulas, E Plata, C Bratengeier, A Anastasilakis, V Komninaka, D Kaliontzi, M Gkotzamanidou, SA Polyzos, M Dimopoulou, and E Terpos
Horm Metab Res,
Nov 2012; 44(12): 909-913.
PMID: 22581647

Study population: postmenopausal osteoporosis patients (n = 62), healthy controls (n = 30)
Sample type:
Conclusion: "We conclude that circulating sclerostin is elevated in thalassemia patients with osteoporosis and correlated with their BMD. These findings suggest that high sclerostin may serve as a marker of increased osteocyte activity in thalassemia patients."

Acute Decline in Serum Sclerostin in Response to PTH Infusion in Healthy Men.
Elaine W. Yu, Ruchit Kumbhani, Erica Siwila-Sackman, and Benjamin Z. Leder
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., Nov 2011; 96: E1848-E1851.
PMID: 21865370

Study population: healthy subjects (n = 53)
Sample type:
Conclusion: "Serum sclerostin declined in response to acute PTH infusion within 6 h in healthy adult men. The early plateau in sclerostin suppression may indicate that maximal stimulation of the Wnt pathway is achieved quickly after exposure to PTH."

Early effects of IL-6 receptor inhibition on bone homeostasis: a pilot study in women with rheumatoid arthritis.
E Terpos, K Fragiadaki, M Konsta,

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