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Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) ELISA

Human Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) ELISA - bone metabolism and tumorgenetic marker. Direct measurement of serum samples (no sample pre-dilution), CE marked, day-test.

PRODUCT DETAILS

Assay characteristics:

Cat.No.: BI-20413
Method: Sandwich ELISA, HRP/TMB, 12x8-well strips
Sample type:Serum
Standard range:0-160 pmol/l (6 serum based standards)
Standard points:0/10/20/40/80/160 pmol/l
Control:1 serum based control
Sample size:20 µl / well
Incubation time:2 h / 1 h / 30 min
Unit conversion:1 pg/ml = 0.039 pmol/l (MW: 25.8 kDa)

Specificity:
oligeomeric forms of natural and recombinant DKK-1.

Sensitivity:
LOD: 1.7 pmol/l (0 pmol/l + 3 SD)

Precision:
Intra-assay (n=5) ≤ 3%, Inter-assay (n=9) ≤ 3%

Spike/Recovery:
The mean recovery of recombinant DKK-1 in human serum samples (n=8) is 92% (spike: 40 pmol/l) and 83% (spike: 80 pmol/l). 

Dilution linearity:
Average recovery of expected DKK-1 after a 1+1; 1+3; 1+7 dilution in serum (n=4) is 109%; 104%; 100%

Cross reactivity: 
Human samples only, no cross reactivity with other species. No cross reactivity or interference with recombinant human DKK-4, Kremen-1, Kremen-2, or LRP-6 was observed.

Values from apparently healthy individuals:
Median (serum, n=51) = 34 pmol/l  
It is recommended to establish the normal range for each laboratory. 

Principle of the assay: 
 

Manual ELISAs - easily adaptable for automation! 

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INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE

Click links for:

BI-20413 DKK-1 ELISA IFU

Biomedica Analytical Service Quotation Form

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VALIDATION DATA

Click here for assay validation data (S/R, dilution linearity, precision, ...).

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ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) is a 28.67 Da secreted protein that acts as soluble inhibitor of the Wnt signalling pathway.

This pathway contains lipid-modified glycoproteins that activate cell surface receptor-mediated signal transduction to regulate cell activities like: cell fate, proliferation, migration, polarity, and gene expression.

DKK-1 regulates developmental processes of all kinds. Thus, DKK-1 is also involved in the regulation of bone metabolism as it effects osteoblast differentiation and in regulation of tumourgenetic activity.

Click link for:

BI-20413 DKK-1 ELISA leaflet

BI-20413 DKK-1 ELISA MSDS

Biomedica BONE PRODUCT LEAFLET

Alternative Names: DKK1, DKK-1, SK, dickkopf WNT signaling pathway inhibitor 1, dickkopf-1

Regarding the human DKK1 gene:
Entrez/NCBI ID: 22943
Genecards: DKK1
OMIM: 605380

Regarding DKK1's structure:
PDB: 3soq, 3s2k, 5fww, 3s8v, 5gje

Expression pattern and disease relevance:
Protein Atlas: DKK1
Uniport ID: O94907
Pubmed references: NCBI 22943

 

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REFERENCES, APPLICATIONS

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BI-20413 - DKK-1 ELISA Reference List

A Cytokine-Like Protein Dickkopf-Related Protein 3 Is Atheroprotective
Baoqi Yu, Stefan Kiechl, Dan Qi, Xiaocong Wang, Yanting Song, Siegfried Weger, Agnes Mayr, Alexandra Le Bras, Eirini Karamariti, Zhongyi Zhang, Ivan del Barco Barrantes, Christof Niehrs, Georg Schett, Yanhua Hu, Wen Wang, Johann Willeit, Aijuan Qu, and Qingbo XuCirculation. 2017 Sep 12; 136(11): 1022–1036. 
PMID: PMC5598907

Study population: artherosclerosis patients (n=1258)
Sample type: Serum
Conclusion: "This study provides the evidence for a role of DKK3 in the protection against atherosclerosis involving endothelial migration and repair, with great therapeutic potential implications against atherosclerosis."

Relationship between serum adipokine levels and radiographic progression in patients with ankylosing spondylitis
Ji-Heh Park, Seung-Geun Lee, Yun-Kyung Jeon, Eun-Kyoung Park, Young-Sun Suh, and Hyun-Ok KimMedicine (Baltimore). 2017 Aug; 96(33): e7854.
PMCID: PMC5571725

Study population: ankylosing spondylitis patients (n=20), controls (n=11)
Sample type: Serum
Conclusion: "The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between serum adipokines levels and radiographic progression over 2 years in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). [...] Our findings suggest that leptin and resistin may contribute to the pathogenesis of new bone formation rather than to inflammatory processes and have the potential to be used as biomarkers of the structural outcome of AS."

Effects of short-term dry immersion on bone remodeling markers, insulin and adipokines
Marie-Thérèse Linossier, Liubov E. Amirova, Mireille Thomas, Myriam Normand, Marie-Pierre Bareille, Guillemette Gauquelin-Koch, Conceptualization, Arnaud Beck, MarieClaude Costes-Salon, Christine Bonneau, Claude Gharib, Marc-Antoine Custaud, and Laurence VicoPLoS One. 2017; 12(8): e0182970.
PMID:PMC5555617

Study population: healthy men (n=12)
Sample type: Serum
Conclusion: "Our results demonstrated that dry immersion (DI) induced an unbalanced remodeling activity and the onset of insulin resistance. This metabolic adaptation was concomitant with higher levels of Glu-OC. This finding confirms the role of bone as an endocrine organ in humans. Furthermore, visfatin for which a great responsiveness was observed could represent an early and sensitive marker of unloading in humans."

Circulating levels of sclerostin but not DKK1 associate with laboratory parameters of CKD-MBD
Geert J. Behets, Liesbeth Viaene, Björn Meijers, Frank Blocki, Vincent M. Brandenburg, Anja Verhulst, Patrick C. D’Haese, and Pieter Evenepoel
PLoS One. 2017; 12(5): e0176411.
PMCID: PMC5426702

Study population: chronic kidney disease patients (CKD; stage 1–2 (n = 41); stage 3 (n = 54); stage 4–5 (n = 54)); hemodialysis patients (n = 100); peritoneal dialysis (n = 59); healthy controls (n = 49)
Sample type: Serum
Conclusion: "In CKD, serum levels of the Wnt inhibitors DKK1 and sclerostin are unrelated, indicating different sites of origin and/ or different regulatory mechanisms. Sclerostin, as opposed to DKK1, may qualify as a biomarker of CKD-MBD, particularly in dialysis patients. DKK1 serum levels, remarkably, correlate almost uniquely with blood platelet counts."

Myocardial Perfusion in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: Associations with Traditional Risk Factors and Novel Biomarkers
Miguel Bernardes, Tiago S. Vieira, Maria João Martins, Raquel Lucas, Lúcia Costa, Jorge G. Pereira, Francisco Ventura, and Elisabete Martins
Biomed Res Int. 2017; 2017: 6509754.
PMCID: PMC5434312

Study population: rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients (n = 189)
Sample type: Serum
Conclusion: "Our results corroborated the hypothesis that myocardial perfusion (MPS) could reveal subclinical CV dysfunction, supported the utility of BNP measurements as a screening tool, and put in perspective the potential usefulness of complementary approaches in CV risk assessment in RA patients."

Markers of bone metabolism during 14 days of bed rest in young and older men
J. Buehlmeier, P. Frings-Meuthen, N. Mohorko, P. Lau, S. Mazzucco, J.L. Ferretti, G. Biolo, R. Pisot, B. Simunic, and J. Rittweger
Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact. 2017 Mar; 17(1): 399–408.
PMCID: PMC5383768

Study population: older (60±2 years, n= 16) and younger men (23±3 years, n=8) during 14 days of bed rest (BR)
Sample type:
Serum
Conclusion: "In men, older age did not affect control of bone metabolism, but bone turnover was reduced. During BR formation markers were reduced only in younger men whereas resorption markers increased to a comparable extent. Thus, we assume that older men are not at an elevated, and possibly even at a reduced risk to lose bone when immobilized."

Effect of Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitor Therapy on Osteoclasts Precursors in Rheumatoid Arthritis
Inês P. Perpétuo, Joana Caetano-Lopes, Ana Maria Rodrigues, Raquel CampanilhoMarques, Cristina Ponte, Helena Canhão, Mari Ainola, and João E. Fonseca
Biomed Res Int. 2017; 2017: 2690402.

PMCID: PMC5327780

Study population: iTNF treated rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients (n = 17)
Sample type: Serum
Conclusion: "After TNFi therapy, patients had reduced RANKL surface expression in B-lymphocytes and the frequency of circulating classical CD14brightCD16 monocytes was decreased. Serum levels of sRANKL, sRANKL/OPG ratio, and CTX-I were reduced in RA patients after TNFi treatment. Moreover, after exposure to TNFi, osteoclast differentiation and activity were decreased, as well as the expression of TRAF6 and cathepsin K. We propose that TNFi arrests bone loss and erosion, through two pathways: direct reduction of osteoclast precursor numbers and inhibition of intracellular signaling pathways acting through TRAF6."

In psoriatic arthritis Dkk-1 and PTH are lower than in rheumatoid arthritis and healthy controls 
Angelo Fassio, Luca Idolazzi, Ombretta Viapiana, Camilla Benini, Elisabetta Vantaggiato, Francesco Bertoldo, Maurizio Rossini, Davide Gatti
Clinical Rheumatology, 2017, 2377–2381.
 
PMID:28634697

Study population: female Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA) patients (n = 33), female
rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients (n = 28), female healthy controls (n = 35)
Sample type: Serum
Conclusion: "This study demonstrated for the first time that Dkk-1 levels in PsA are lower than HC, in contrast with RA, in which they are increased. These results might contribute to explain the different bone involvement of the two different diseases."

Adjuvant tamoxifen but not aromatase inhibitor therapy decreases serum levels of the Wnt inhibitor dickkopf-1 while not affecting sclerostin in breast cancer patients
Andy Göbel,  Jan D. Kuhlmann, Theresa Link, Pauline Wimberger, Andrew J. Browne, Martina Rauner, Lorenz C. Hofbauer, Tilman D. Rachner
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 2017, 737–743.
PMID: 28526959

Study population: pre- and postmenopausal women with primary estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer treated with adjuvant tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors 12 months after surgery (n = 45)
Sample type: Serum
Conclusion: "DKK-1 serum levels were reduced in breast cancer patients receiving an adjuvant therapy with tamoxifen, possibly contributing to its bone-protective properties."

Serum levels of Dickkopf-1 are a potential negative biomarker of survival in geriatric patients
Peter Dovjak, Georg Heinze, Anna Rainer, Wolfgang Sipos, Peter Pietschmann
Experimental Gerontology, 2017, 104-109.
PMID: 28652180

Study population: geriatric patients (n = 238; n = 150 with a hip fracture)
Sample type: Serum
Conclusion: "In an age- and sex-adjusted model, low serum levels of Dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1), an inhibitor of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, were significantly associated with mortality. The strong association of Dkk-1 levels and mortality has clinical relevance as it suggests Dkk-1 to be a therapeutic target to improve survival after hip fractures."
Organism: Human

Circulating Dickkopf-1 and sclerostin in patients with Paget’s disease of bone
Luca Idolazzi, Angelo Fassio, Gaia Tripi, Vania Braga, Ombretta Viapiana, Giovanni Adami, Maurizio Rossini, Davide Gatti
Clinical Rheumatology, 2017, 925-928
PMID:28054306

Study population: paget disease patients (n = 40); healthy controls (n = 40)
Sample type: Serum
Conclusion: "In conclusion, our results suggest that the regulators of the Wnt-β catenin pathway are not altered in patients with Paget disease of bone. The positive correlation we found between sclerostin and age in Paget disease of bone patients indicates that in comparative studies, sclerostin serum levels must be adjusted for age."
Organism: Human

Glucocorticoid therapy causes contradictory changes of serum Wnt signaling-related molecules in systemic autoimmune diseases
Mai Kawazoe, Kaichi Kaneko, Kotaro Shikano, Natsuko Kusunoki, Toshihiro Nanki, Shinichi Kawai
Clinical Rheumatology, 2017, 1-10.

PMID:28551822

Study population: patients with systemic autoimmune diseases who received initial glucocorticoid therapy with prednisolone (n = 91)
Sample type: Serum
Conclusion: "Bone formation might be impaired at least in the first week of the initiation of glucocorticoid therapy by increase of the serum Wnt signaling inhibitors; however, their reductions in the subsequent weeks were contradictory to the maintained suppression of the bone formation markers after glucocorticoid therapy for patients with systemic autoimmune diseases."
Organism: Human

Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients Have Impaired Osteoclast Gene Expression in Circulating Osteoclast Precursors
Inês P. Perpétuo, Joana Caetano-Lopes, Elsa Vieira-Sousa, Raquel Campanilho Marques, Cristina Ponte, Nikita Khmelinskii, Helena Canhão, Mari Ainola, and João E. Fonseca
Front Med (Lausanne). 2017; 4: 5.

PMCID: PMC5269449

Study population: patients with active ankylosing spondylitis (AS) without any ongoing therapy (n = 30), healthy controls (n = 21)
Conclusion: "Despite the high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines present in AS patients, no differences in the number of osteoclasts (OC )or resorbed area were found between AS patients and healthy donors. Moreover, we observed that osteoclast precursors (OCPs) have low OC-specific gene expression. These findings support our hypothesis of an impaired response of OCPs to pro-osteoclastogenic stimuli in vivo in AS patients."

Effect of Osteoprotegerin and Dickkopf-Related Protein 1 on Radiological Progression in Tightly Controlled Rheumatoid Arthritis
Carmen Gómez-Vaquero, Irene Martín, Estibaliz Loza, Loreto Carmona, José Ivorra, José Antonio Narváez, Javier Hernández-Gañán, Pedro Alía, and Javier Narváez
PLoS One. 2016; 11(12): e0166691.
PMCID: PMC5135438

Study population: rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients under treatment (n = 97)
Sample type: Serum
Conclusion: "The objective was to analyze the association between circulating osteoprotegerin (OPG) and Dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK-1) and radiological progression in patients with tightly controlled rheumatoid arthritis (RA). [...] In patients with tightly controlled RA, serum OPG was inversely associated with progression of joint destruction. This biomarker may be useful in combination with other risk factors to improve prediction in patients in clinical remission or low disease activity state."

Bone loss in patients with early inflammatory back pain suggestive of spondyloarthritis: results from the prospective DESIR cohort
Karine Briot, Adrien Etcheto, Corinne Miceli-Richard, Maxime Dougados, and Christian Roux
Rheumatology, 2016 Feb;55(2):335-42. 

PMID:26361878

Study population: patients with early inflammatory back pain suggestive of axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) (n = 265)
Sample type: Serum
Conclusion: "Among patients with symptoms suggestive of early axial SpA, 42.3% of patients have significant bone loss over 2 years. Anti-TNF therapy is protective against bone loss and baseline use of NSAIDs has a protective effect on hip bone loss."

Serum Sclerostin as an Independent Marker of Peripheral Arterial Stiffness in Renal Transplantation Recipients
Bang-Gee Hsu, Hung-Hsiang Liou, Chung-Jen Lee, Yen-Cheng Chen, Guan-Jin Ho, and Ming-Che Lee
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016 Apr; 95(15): e3300.

PMCID: PMC4839814

Study population: renal transplant (RT) recipients with (n = 30) high and low (n = 38) arterial stiffness group
Sample type: Serum
Conclusion: "In this study, serum sclerostin level, but not DKK1, was proved to be involved in the pathogenetic process of peripheral arterial stiffness in RT recipients."

Osteoprotegerin and sclerostin in chronic kidney disease prior to dialysis: potential partners in vascular calcifications
Marion Morena, Isabelle Jaussent, Anne-Marie Dupuy, Anne-Sophie Bargnoux, Nils Kuster, Leila Chenine, Hélène Leray-Moragues, Kada Klouche, Hélène Vernhet, Bernard Canaud, and Jean-Paul Cristol
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant., Aug 2015; 30: 1345 – 1356

PMID: 25854266

Study population:  non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (ND-CKD) patients (n = 241)
Sample type: Serum
Conclusion: "Our results strongly suggest that bone turnover inhibitors, OPG and sclerostin, are independently associated with coronary artery calcifications (CAC) with potential additive effects in ND-CKD patients."

p38 MAPK regulates the Wnt inhibitor Dickkopf-1 in osteotropic prostate cancer cells
A J Browne, A Göbel, S Thiele, L C Hofbauer, M Rauner, and T D Rachner
Cell Death Dis. 2016 Feb; 7(2): e2119.

PMCID: PMC4849158

Study population: Prostate cancer cells (PC3, MDA-PCa-2b, DU145 and C4-2B)
Sample type: Cell culture supernatent
Conclusion: "[...] p38 MAPK regulates DKK-1 in prostate cancer and may present a potential target in osteolytic prostate cancers."

Increased Dickkopf-1 in Recent-onset Rheumatoid Arthritis is a New Biomarker of Structural Severity. Data from the ESPOIR Cohort
Raphaèle Seror, Saida Boudaoud, Stephan Pavy, Gaetane Nocturne, Thierry Schaeverbeke, Alain Saraux, Philippe Chanson, Jacques-Eric Gottenberg, Valérie Devauchelle-Pensec, Gabriel J. Tobón, Xavier Mariette, and Corinne Miceli-Richarda
Sci Rep. 2016; 6: 18421.

PMCID: PMC4726234

Study population: early rheumatoid arthritis patients (n = 694), healthy controls (n=453)
Sample type: Serum
Conclusion: "This study demonstrates that increased DKK-1 level at baseline predicted structural progression after 2-year follow-up and suggests that DKK-1 might be a new structural biomarker for early RA."

Effect of Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitor Therapy on Osteoclasts Precursors in Ankylosing Spondylitis
Inês P. Perpétuo, Rita Raposeiro, Joana Caetano-Lopes, Elsa Vieira-Sousa, Raquel Campanilho-Marques, Cristina Ponte, Helena Canhão, Mari Ainola, and João E. Fonseca
PLoS One. 2015; 10(12): e0144655.

PMCID: PMC4682624

Study population: ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients (n = 13), healthy controls (n = 25)
Sample type: Serum
Conclusion: "In AS patients, TNFi treatment reduces systemic pro osteoclastogenic stimuli. However, osteoclast (OC ) precursors from AS patients exposed to TNFi therapy have increased in vitro activity in response to osteoclastogenic stimuli."

High Parathyroid Hormone Level and Osteoporosis Predict Progression of Coronary Artery Calcification in Patients on Dialysis
Hartmut H. Malluche, Gustav Blomquist, Marie-Claude Monier-Faugere, Thomas L. Cantor, and Daniel L. Davenport
Am. Soc. Nephrol., Apr 2015; 10.1681/ASN.2014070686.

PMID: 25838468 

Study population: chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients on dialysis (n = 213)
Sample type: Serum
Conclusion: "Independent risk factors for CAC progression were age, baseline total or whole parathyroid hormone level greater than nine times the normal value, and osteoporosis by t scores. Our results confirm a role for bone in CKD–associated coronary artery calcification (CAC) prevalence and progression."
Organism: Human

Increase in Dickkopf-1 Serum Level in Recent Spondyloarthritis. Data from the DESIR Cohort
Gaetane Nocturne, Stephan Pavy, Saida Boudaoud, Raphaèle Seror, Philippe Goupille, Philippe Chanson, Désirée van der Heijde, Floris van Gaalen, Francis Berenbaum, Xavier Mariette, Karine Briot, Antoine Feydy, Pascal Claudepierre, Philippe Dieudé, Joanne Nithitham, Kimberly E. Taylor, Lindsey A. Criswell, Maxime Dougados, Christian Roux, and Corinne Miceli-Richard
PLoS One. 2015; 10(8): e0134974.

PMCID: PMC4552086

Study population:  spondyloarthritis (SpA) patients (n = 486); healthy controls (n = 80)
Sample type: Serum
Conclusion: "DKK-1 serum levels were increased and SOST levels were decreased among a large cohort of patients with early axial SpA compared to healthy controls. DKK-1 serum levels were mostly associated with biological inflammation and SOST serum levels."
Organism: Human

Changes in Serum Levels of Myokines and Wnt-Antagonists after an Ultramarathon Race
Katharina Kerschan-Schindl, Markus M. Thalmann, Elisabeth Weiss, Maria Tsironi, Ursula Föger-Samwald, Johann Meinhart, Katerina Skenderi, and Peter Pietschmann 
PLoS One. 2015; 10(7): e0132478.

PMCID: PMC4493015

Study population: spartalon participants (n = 19)
Sample type: Serum
Conclusion: "The increase of serum levels of myostatin appears to reflect muscle catabolic processes induced by overstrenuous exercise. After the short-term uncoupling of bone turnover participation in an ultradistance race seems to initiate a long-term positive effect on bone indicated by the low-level inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway."
Organism: Human

Relationship of Dickkopf1 (DKK1) with Cardiovascular Disease and Bone Metabolism in Caucasian Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Antonia Garcia-Martín, Rebeca Reyes-Garcia, Beatriz García-Fontana, Sonia MoralesSantana, Ana Coto-Montes, Manuel Muñoz-Garach, Pedro Rozas-Moreno, and Manuel Muñoz-Torres
PLoS One. 2014; 9(11): e111703.

PMCID: PMC4219763

Study population: type 2 diabetes patients (n = 72), healthy controls (n = 54)
Sample type: Serum
Conclusion: "In summary, circulating DKK1 levels are higher in T2DM with CVD and are associated with an abnormal carotid IMT in this cross-sectional study. DKK1 may be involved in vascular disease of T2DM patients."

Serum sclerostin in high-activity adult patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis Kristyna Brabnikova-Maresova, Katerina Jarosova, Karel Pavelka, and Jan J Stepan 
Arthritis Res Ther. 2014; 16(5): 460.

PMCID: PMC4236454

Study population: juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) (n = 31), healthy controls (n=84)
Conclusion: "A significant correlation between the sclerostin serum concentration and the number of tender and swollen joints, but not BMD, supports the hypothesis that chondrocytes and cells of the subchondral bone may contribute to circulating sclerostin in JIA."

High serum levels of Dickkopf-1 are associated with a poor prognosis in prostate cancer patients
Tilman D Rachner, Stefanie Thiele, Andy Göbel, Andrew Browne, Susanne Fuessel, Kati Erdmann, Manfred P Wirth, Michael Fröhner, Tilman Todenhöfer, Michael H Muders, Matthias Kieslinger, Martina Rauner, and Lorenz C Hofbauer BMC Cancer. 2014; 14: 649.
PMCID: PMC4167148

Study population:  prostate cancer patients (n = 80)
Sample type: Serum
Conclusion: "High DKK-1 serum levels are associated with a poor survival in patients with prostate cancer. In light of current clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of anti-DKK-1 antibody therapies in multiple myeloma and solid malignancies, the measurement of DKK-1 in prostate cancer may gain clinical relevance."

Bone Mineral Density and Serum Biochemical Predictors of Bone Loss in Patients with CKD on Dialysis
Hartmut H. Malluche, Daniel L. Davenport, Tom Cantor, and Marie-Claude Monier-Faugere
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2014 Jul 7; 9(7): 1254–1262.

PMCID: PMC4078960

Study population: chronic kidney disease patients (n = 81)
Sample type: Serum
Conclusion: "Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) identified prospectively more bone loss at the hip than DXA. The baseline serum biochemical parameters sclerostin and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b were noninvasive independent predictors of bone loss in CKD patients on dialysis."

Serum levels of sclerostin, Dickkopf-1, and secreted frizzled-related protein-4 are not changed in individuals with high bone mass causing mutations in LRP5
C. A. Simpson, D. Foer, G. S. Lee, J. Bihuniak, B. Sun, R. Sullivan, J. Belsky, and K. L. Insogna
Osteoporos Int. 2014 Oct; 25(10): 2383–2388.

PMCID: PMC4659359

Study population: individuals with G171V (n = 12) or N198S (n = 4) gain-of-function mutations in LRP5, healthy controls (n = 24)
Sample type: Serum
Conclusion: "Circulating levels of endogenous Wnt inhibitors do not change in patients with gain-of-function mutations in LRP5 including Dkk1, which is suppressed by Wnt signaling. It may be that circulating levels of Wnt inhibitors do not reflect changes in target tissues. It is also possible that other mechanisms besides or in addition to resistance in Wnt inhibitors explains the skeletal effects of these mutations."

The Effect of Leptin Replacement on Parathyroid Hormone, RANKL-Osteoprotegerin Axis, and Wnt Inhibitors in Young Women With Hypothalamic Amenorrhea
Joo-Pin Foo, Stergios A. Polyzos, Athanasios D. Anastasilakis, Sharon Chou, and Christos S. Mantzoros
Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Nov; 99(11): E2252–E2258.
 
PMCID: PMC5393498

Study population: women with hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA) and hypoleptinemia treated with metreleptin (n = 10) or a placebo (n = 8)
Sample type: Serum
Conclusion: "Metreleptin treatment over 36 weeks decreases iPTH and RANKL to OPG ratio levels in hypoleptinemic women with HA."
Organism: Human

The relationship between inhibitors of the Wnt signalling pathway (sclerostin and Dickkopf-1) and carotid intima-media thickness in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus
Agostino Gaudio, Filippo Privitera, Ivana Pulvirenti, Elena Canzonieri, Rosario Rapisarda, and Carmelo E Fiore
Diabetes and Vascular Disease Research, Jan 2014; 11: 48 - 52.
 
PMID: 24227537

Bone Mineral Density and Serum Biochemical Predictors of Bone Loss in Patients with CKD on Dialysis
Hartmut H. Malluche, Daniel L. Davenport, Tom Cantor, and Marie-Claude Monier-Faugere
Clin. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol., Jul 2014; 9: 1254 - 1262.

PMID: 24948144

DKK-1 in prostate cancer diagnosis and follow up
Patrizia D’Amelio, Ilaria Roato, Marco Oderda, Francesco Soria, Andrea Zitella, Riccardo Ferracini,Giulio Mengozzi, Paolo Gontero and Giovanni Carlo Isaia
BMC Clinical Pathology 2014, 14:11

PMID: 24655661

Biomarkers of Bone Metabolism in Ankylosing Spondylitis in Relation to Osteoproliferation and Osteoporosis
Eva Klingberg, Merja Nurkkala, Hans Carlsten, and Helena Forsblad-d’Elia
J Rheumatol, Jul 2014; 41: 1349 - 1356. 
PMID: 24931960

Dickkopf-1 is regulated by the mevalonate pathway in breast cancer
Tilman D Rachner, Andy Göbel, Stefanie Thiele, Martina Rauner, Peggy BenadMehner, Peyman Hadji, Thomas Bauer, Michael H Muders, Gustavo B Baretton, Franz Jakob, Regina Ebert, Martin Bornhäuser, Christian Schem, and Lorenz C Hofbauer
Breast Cancer Res. 2014; 16(1): R20.

PMCID: PMC3979025

AB0614 Role of wnt antagonists (sclerostin and dkk-1) on bone turnover markers and bone mass, in patients with complete spinal cord injury. preliminary results
L. Gifre, J. Vidal, S. Ruiz-Gaspà, E. Portell, A. Monegal, A. Muxi, N. Guañabens, and P. Peris
Ann Rheum Dis, Jun 2013; 72: A977.
 

High dickkopf-1 levels in sera and leukocytes from children with 21-hydroxylase deficiency on chronic glucocorticoid treatment
Giacomina Brunetti, Maria Felicia Faienza, Laura Piacente, Annamaria Ventura, Angela Oranger, Claudia Carbone, Adriana Di Benedetto, Graziana Colaianni, Margherita Gigante, Giorgio Mori, Loreto Gesualdo, Silvia Colucci, Luciano Cavallo, and Maria Gran
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, Mar 2013; 304: E546 - E554.
PMID: 23299503

Effect of Glucocorticoid Treatment on Wnt Signalling Antagonists (Sclerostin and Dkk1) and their Relationship to Bone Turnover and Bone Mass
L. Gifre, P. Peris, S. Ruiz-Gaspà, A. Monegal, B. Nomdedeu, and N. Guañabens Ann Rheum Dis, Jun 2013; 72: A297. 
PMID: 23981659

Relationship between bone mineral density and radiographic damage in established rheumatoid arthritis patients under biologics
M. Bernardes, T. Vieira, G. Terroso, J. Abelha-Aleixo, P. Madureira, R. Vieira, R. Fonseca, D. Gonçalves, A. Bernardo, S. Pimenta, A. Oliveira, T. Faria, C. Gonçalves, J. G. Pereira, M. J. Martins, J. C. Machado, L. Costa, and F. Simões-Ventura
Ann Rheum Dis, Jun 2013; 72: A861.
 

Genetic studies on components of the Wnt signalling pathway and the severity of joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis
Diederik P C de Rooy, Nataliya G Yeremenko, Anthony Gerard Wilson, Rachel Knevel, Elisabet Lindqvist, Tore Saxne, Annemarie Krabben, Martha K Leijsma, Nina A Daha, S Tsonaka, A Zhernakova, J J Houwing-Duistermaat, Tom W J Huizinga, René E M Toes, Dominique L P Baeten, E Brouwer, and Annette H M van der Helm-van Mil
Ann Rheum Dis, May 2013; 72: 769 - 775.
 
PMID: 23041840

AB0059 Effect of anti-tnf alpha treatment on serum levels of light (tnfsf14), cathepsin k, dkk-1 and sclerostin in ankylosing spondylitis: the osteoclast/osteoblast function balance and its relation to disease activity
Cauli, G. Dessole, G. Porru, M. Piga, A. Vacca, V. Ibba, P. Garau, and A. Mathieu
Ann Rheum Dis, Jun 2013; 72: A803

Elevated Serum Dickkopf-1 Levels Increase Risk of Hip and Vertebral Fracture in Older Caucasian Women
Aarthi Arasu, Peggy M Cawthon, Li-Yung Lui, Jane A Cauley, Kristine E Ensrud, and Steven R Cummings
Endocr. Rev., Jun 2013; 34: SAT-224. / Endocr. Rev., Jun 2013; 34: FP10-1.

Genetic studies on components of the Wnt signalling pathway and the severity of joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis
Diederik P C de Rooy, Nataliya G Yeremenko, Anthony Gerard Wilson, Rachel Knevel, Elisabet Lindqvist, Tore Saxne, Annemarie Krabben, Martha K Leijsma, Nina A Daha, S Tsonaka, A Zhernakova, J J Houwing-Duistermaat, Tom W J Huizinga, René E M Toes, Dominique L P Baeten, E Brouwer, and Annette H M van der Helm-van Mil
Ann Rheum Dis, May 2013; 72: 769 - 775.

PMID: 23041840

High dickkopf-1 levels in sera and leukocytes from children with 21-hydroxylase deficiency on chronic glucocorticoid treatment
Giacomina Brunetti, Maria Felicia Faienza, Laura Piacente, Annamaria Ventura, Angela Oranger, Claudia Carbone, Adriana Di Benedetto, Graziana Colaianni, Margherita Gigante, Giorgio Mori, Loreto Gesualdo, Silvia Colucci, Luciano Cavallo, and Maria Grano
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, Mar 2013; 304: E546 - E554.

PMID: 23299503

Sclerostin Levels Associated with Inhibition of the Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling and Reduced Bone Turnover in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Agostino Gaudio, Filippo Privitera, Katia Battaglia, Venerando Torrisi, Maria Helga Sidoti, Ivana Pulvirenti, Elena Canzonieri, Giovanni Tringali, and Carmelo Erio Fiore
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., Oct 2012; 97: 3744 - 3750.
PMID: 22855334

Serum Osteoprotegerin, RANKL, and Dkk-1 Levels in Adults with Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis
Polyzois Makras, Stergios A. Polyzos, Athanasios D. Anastasilakis, Evangelos Terpos, George Kanakis, Marian Schini, Athanasios Papatheodorou, and Gregory A. Kaltsas
Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., Apr 2012; 97: E618 - E621

PMID: 22278426

High level of functional dickkopf-1 predicts protection from syndesmophyte formation in patients with ankylosing spondylitis
Gisela Ruiz Heiland, Heiner Appel, Denis Poddubnyy, Jochen Zwerina, Axel Hueber, Hildrun Haibel, Xenofon Baraliakos, Joachim Listing, Martin Rudwaleit, Georg Schett, and Joachim Sieper
Ann Rheum Dis, Apr 2012; 71: 572 - 574.
 
PMID: 22186710

Low circulating Dickkopf-1 and its link with severity of spinal involvement in diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis
L Senolt, H Hulejova, O Krystufkova, S Forejtova, L Andres Cerezo, J Gatterova, K Pavelka, and J Vencovsky
Ann Rheum Dis. 2012 Jan;71(1):71-4. doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2011-200357. Epub 2011 Sep 7.

PMID: 21900287

Sclerostin serum levels correlate positively with bone mineral density and microarchitecture in haemodialysis patients
Daniel Cejka, Agnes Jäger-Lansky, Heidi Kieweg, Michael Weber, Christian Bieglmayer, Dominik G. Haider, Danielle Diarra, Janina M. Patsch, Franz Kainberger, Barbara Bohle, and Martin Haas
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant., Jan 2012; 27: 226 - 230.

PMID: 21613383 

Bone microstructural changes revealed by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography imaging and elevated DKK1 and MIP-1α levels in patients with MGUS
Alvin C. Ng, Sundeep Khosla, Natthinee Charatcharoenwitthaya, Shaji K. Kumar, Sara J. Achenbach, Margaret F. Holets, Louise K. McCready, L. Joseph Melton, III, Robert A. Kyle, S. Vincent Rajkumar, and Matthew T. Drake
Blood, Dec 2011; 118: 6529 - 6534. 
PMID: 22042700

Sclerostin and Dickkopf-1 in Renal Osteodystrophy
Daniel Cejka, Johann Herberth, Adam J. Branscum, David W. Fardo, Marie-Claude Monier-Faugere, Danielle Diarra, Martin Haas, and Hartmut H. Malluche
Clin. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol., Apr 2011; 6: 877 - 882.
PMID: 21164019  

The Waning of Teriparatide Effect on Bone Formation Markers in Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Is Associated with Increasing Serum Levels of DKK1
Davide Gatti, Ombretta Viapiana, Luca Idolazzi, Elena Fracassi, Maurizio Rossini, and Silvano Adami
Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., May 2011; 96: 1555 - 1559.
PMID: 21367927

High Circulating Levels of Sclerostin Correlate with Bone Mineral Density In Patients with Thalassemia and Osteoporosis: The Role of the Wnt Signaling In the Pathogenesis of Bone Loss In Thalassemia
Ersi Voskaridou, Dimitrios Christoulas, Athanasios Papatheodorou, Cornelia Bratengeier, Eleni Plata, Despoina Kaliontzi, Wolfgang Woloszczuk, and Evangelos Terpos
Blood (ASH Annual Meeting Abstracts), Nov 2010; 116: 1010.


Increased Sclerostin Serum Levels Associated with Bone Formation and Resorption
Markers in Patients with Immobilization-Induced Bone Loss
Agostino Gaudio, Pietra Pennisi, Cornelia Bratengeier, Venerando Torrisi, Brigitte Lindner, Roberto A. Mangiafico, Ivana Pulvirenti, Gerhard Hawa, Giovanni Tringali, and Carmelo E. Fiore
Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., May 2010; 95: 2248 - 2253.

PMID: 20305005

High Serum Sclerostin Correlates with Advanced Stage, Increased Bone Resorption, Reduced Osteoblast Function, and Poor Survival in Newly-Diagnosed Patients with Multiple Myeloma.
Evangelos Terpos, Dimitrios Christoulas, Eirini Katodritou, Cornelia Bratengeier, Brigitte Lindner, Silvia Harmelin, Gerhard Hawa, Georgios Boutsikas, Magdalini Migkou, Maria Gavriatopoulou, Eurydiki Michalis, Anastasia Pouli, Efstathios Kastritis, Konstantinos Zervas, and Meletios A. Dimopoulos
Blood (ASH Annual Meeting Abstracts), Nov 2009; 114: 425.

Opposite relationships between circulating Dkk-1 and cartilage breakdown in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and knee osteoarthritis
N Voorzanger-Rousselot, N Charni Ben-Tabassi, and P Garnero Ann Rheum Dis, Sep 2009; 68: 1513 - 1514.
PMID:19674991

Serum Dickkopf-1 is increased and correlates with reduced bone mineral density in patients with thalassemia-induced osteoporosis. Reduction post-zoledronic acid administration
Ersi Voskaridou, Dimitrios Christoulas, Charoula Xirakia, Konstantinos Varvagiannis, Georgios Boutsikas, Antonios Bilalis, Efstathios Kastritis, Athanasios Papatheodorou, and Evangelos Terpos
Haematologica. 2009 May; 94(5): 725–728.

PMCID: PMC2675686

The Effect of Zoledronic Acid on Serum Dickkopf-1, Osteoprotegerin, and RANKL in Patients with Paget's Disease of Bone. 
S A Polyzos, A D Anastasilakis, Z Efstathiadou, M Kita, I Litsas, A Avramidis, G Arsos, E Moralidis, S Gerou, V Pavlidou, A Papatheodorou, and E Terpos
Horm Metab Res. 2009 Nov;41(11):846-50. doi: 10.1055/s-0029-1233491. Epub 2009 Aug 10.

PMID: 19670154

Assessment of circulating Dickkopf-1 with a new two-site immunoassay in healthy subjects and women with breast cancer and bone metastases.
N Voorzanger-Rousselot, F Journe, V Doriath, JJ Body, and P Garnero
Calcif Tissue Int, May 1, 2009; 84(5): 348-54
 
PMID: 19252761

Serum Dickkopf-1 is increased and correlates with  reduced bone mineral density in patients with thalassemia-induced osteoporosis. Reduction post-zoledronic acid administration
Ersi Voskaridou, Dimitrios Christoulas, Charoula Xirakia, Konstantinos Varvagiannis, Georgios Boutsikas, Antonios Bilalis, Efstathios Kastritis, Athanasios Papatheodorou, and Evangelos Terpos
Haematologica, Mar 2009; 10.3324/haematol.2008.000893.

PMID: 19407319

Circulating Dickkopf-1 and Radiological Progression in Patients with Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Treated with Etanercept.
Patrick Garnero, Nadine Charni-Ben Tabassi, and Nathalie Voorzanger-Rousselot J Rheumatol. 2008 Dec;35(12):2313-5. Epub 2008 Oct 1.
PMID: 18843784

Osteoclasts Are Active in Bone Forming Metastases of Prostate Cancer Patients
Ilaria Roato, Patrizia D’Amelio, Eva Gorassini, Anastasia Grimaldi, Lisa Bonello, Cristian Fiori, Luisa Delsedime, Alessandro Tizzani, Alfredo De Libero, Giancarlo Isaia, and Riccardo Ferracini
PLoS One. 2008; 3(11): e3627.

PMCID: PMC2574033

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